Dieses e-book: "Ökonomisch-philosophische Manuskripte aus dem Jahre 1844 (Pariser Manuskripte) - Vollständige Ausgabe" ist mit einem detaillierten und dynamischen Inhaltsverzeichnis versehen und wurde sorgfältig korrekturgelesen.
Die Ökonomisch-philosophischen Manuskripte aus dem Jahre 1844, auch bekannt unter dem Namen Pariser Manuskripte, wurden von Karl Marx Ende Mai / Anfang Juni bis August 1844 in Paris verfasst und zählen zu den Marxschen "Frühschriften". Sie waren zur Selbstverständigung bestimmt und wurden zu Lebzeiten nicht veröffentlicht. Teile der Manuskripte sind nur fragmentarisch erhalten. Wichtige philosophische und ökonomische Begriffe in den Manuskripten sind Arbeit, Entfremdung, 'gegenständliches Gattungswesen' und Anerkennung, sowie Arbeitslohn, 'Profit des Capitals' und Grundrente. Das erste Heft besteht aus vier Spalten. Zum Arbeitslohn schreibt Marx: Der Arbeitslohn werde als Ware bestimmt aus dem feindlichen Kampf zwischen Kapitalisten und Arbeitenden. Wenn die Wirtschaft verfalle, dann leiden die Arbeitenden am meisten. Zum Gewinn des Kapitals schreibt er: Kapital sei durch das Recht auf Eigentum erschaffen worden. Sein Gewinn könne erhalten werden durch Monopole, Einzigartigkeit der Ware oder bei konstant hoher Nachfrage. Im Kapitel Grundrente stellt er fest, dass Grundeigentümer selbst für die Nutzung des Bodens und das Ernten seiner Früchte einen Preis verlangen würden. Erhöhte Nachfrage erhöhe die Preise und nutze den Grundeigentümern. Zum Begriff der Entfremdeten Arbeit schreibt Marx, dass der Arbeiter umso ärmer werde je mehr Reichtum er produziere. Er selbst werde eine umso billigere Ware je mehr Waren er erschaffe...
Karl Marx (1818-1883) conflict ein deutscher Philosoph, Ökonom, Gesellschaftstheoretiker, politischer Journalist, Protagonist der Arbeiterbewegung sowie Kritiker der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft und der faith. Zusammen mit Friedrich Engels wurde er zum einflussreichsten Theoretiker des Sozialismus und Kommunismus.
As the newborn increase starts to withdraw from the exertions strength, making sure a safe retirement source of revenue turns into an more and more very important factor, the variety of humans over age sixty five is predicted to double by way of 2030. That development will proceed, observed by means of concerns approximately inventory marketplace volatility, company malfeasance, a quickly altering economic climate, and the viability of Social safeguard. In arising brief, specialists on retirement coverage learn 401(k) plans, the fastest-growing form of employer-sponsored pensions and an important resource of retirement source of revenue for the yank center classification. Alicia Munnell and Annika Sunden chronicle the improvement of 401(k) plans, now the dominant type of deepest pensions. In obtainable language, they clarify how such plans paintings and speak about their attractiveness. for workers, those plans are attractive becuase they've got extra regulate over their very own retirement cash, and the plans are transportable. For employers, the plans are usually more cost-effective than outlined profit plans. regardless of these benefits, there are a few major downsides to 401(k) plans. those plans shift all of the chance and accountability to staff, who needs to come to a decision even if to hitch, how a lot to give a contribution, tips to make investments, no matter if to "cash out" whilst altering jobs, and the way to regulate their nest egg in retirement. those are tricky judgements, and whereas in concept 401(k)s can be an efficient rate reductions motor vehicle for retirement, in perform many of us make blunders at each step alongside the way in which. Com ing Up brief discusses why those blunders are made and proposes a number of reforms to make sure that the getting older inhabitants can have enough retirement source of revenue. finished and updated, bobbing up brief is a necessary source on 401(k) plans for monetary provider pros, policymakers, teachers, and contributors making plans for his or her personal retirement.
By Martin Cave, P. G. Hare
Monique Taylor analyses the coverage motive and institutional underpinnings of China's state-led or neomercantilist oil procedure, and its improvement, set opposed to the broader context of monetary transformation because the kingdom transitions from a centrally deliberate to marketplace economic climate.
The hot Deal as a Triumph of Social paintings matters the 'hand' the hot Deal performs from the viewpoint of early American heritage during which govt and company cooperation is thought and fiscal rights are addressed jointly while political rights are thought of separately. the recent Deal reconfigures this 'ratio' of rights via folding 'social paintings' into the goals of presidency. Miller describes the very important half Frances Perkins and her own heritage play during this improvement.
By Richard D. North
This publication was once initially released at the IEA's website at the day earlier than the govt. invoice that sought to outlaw fur farming in Britain bought its moment studying in the home of Commons. The invoice was once predicated at the assumption that fur farming is incorrect (it is taken into account a question of 'public morality'). even though, in keeping with Richard North, that assumption is defective. during this most up-to-date atmosphere booklet, Mr North debunks the various oft-repeated misconceptions approximately fur farming.
By Dani Rodrik
This article examines the advantages and hazards of overseas monetary integration, and criticizes mainstream economists for now not emphasizing its hazards. It argues that the winners have as a lot at stake from the potential results of social instability uncovered through globalization, because the losers.
When Deng Xiaoping introduced China at the route to fiscal reform within the past due Nineteen Seventies, he vowed to construct “socialism with chinese language characteristics.” greater than 3 many years later, China’s efforts to modernize have yielded whatever very diverse from the operating people’s paradise Deng predicted: an incipient kleptocracy, characterised by way of endemic corruption, hovering source of revenue inequality, and transforming into social tensions. China’s Crony Capitalism traces the origins of China’s present-day problems to the sequence of incomplete reforms from the post-Tiananmen period that decentralized the keep an eye on of public estate with out clarifying its ownership.
Beginning within the Nineteen Nineties, alterations within the keep an eye on and possession rights of state-owned resources allowed well-connected govt officers and businessmen to accumulate large fortunes in the course of the systematic looting of state-owned property―in specific land, typical assets, and resources in state-run firms. Mustering compelling proof from over 2 hundred corruption circumstances concerning executive and cops, deepest businessmen, and arranged crime contributors, Minxin Pei exhibits how collusion between elites has spawned a bootleg marketplace for energy contained in the party-state, within which bribes and reliable appointments are surreptitiously yet commonly traded. the program of crony capitalism has created a legacy of illegal activity and entrenched privilege that would make any flow towards democracy tricky and disorderly.
Rejecting traditional platitudes concerning the resilience of chinese language Communist social gathering rule, Pei gathers unambiguous proof that underneath China’s facade of ever-expanding prosperity and gear lies a Leninist country in a sophisticated degree of decay.
The cave in of the monetary markets in 2008 and the ensuing 'Great Recession' in basic terms speeded up an already worrisome pattern: the shift clear of an employer-based social welfare procedure within the usa. because the finish of worldwide warfare II, a considerable percent of the prices of social provision--most significantly, unemployment coverage and well-being insurance--has been borne via employers instead of the nation. the united states has lengthy been specific between complex economies during this regard, yet in recent times, its social agreement has develop into so frayed that's quick changing into unrecognizable. regardless of Obama's election, the burdens of social provision are falling more and more upon person households, and the placement is worsening as a result of the unemployment drawback. How will we fix the yankee social welfare procedure in order that employees and households obtain sufficient safeguard and, if worthy, provision from the ravages of the marketplace?
In Shared accountability, Shared Risk, Jacob Hacker and Ann O'Leary have accrued a distinctive team of students on American social coverage to handle this such a lot primary of difficulties. jointly, they examine how the 'privatization of probability' has elevated hardships for American households and elevated inequality. additionally they suggest a sequence of strategies that may distribute the burdens of dangers extra extensively and extend the social defense web. the variety of concerns coated is extensive: healthiness care, homeownership, social safeguard and getting older, unemployment, wealth (as against source of revenue) production, schooling, and family-friendly guidelines. The publication can be comparative, measuring US social coverage opposed to the rules of alternative complicated countries. Given the present problem in the USA social coverage and the concomitant paralysis inside of executive, the ebook has the capability to make an enormous intervention within the present debate.
By Mark Rupert
This publication examines the most important debates approximately globalization and gives an in depth and incisive research of the numerous and infrequently contradictory competition to globalization in the United States.
Subjects coated include:
* the old context of the advance of globalization within the US within the post-war period
* competition to the North American unfastened exchange contract (NAFTA), the final contract on exchange & price lists (GATT) & the area alternate supplier (WTO)
* the nationalist reaction to globalization from 'militia' teams and others at the severe right
* the populist backlash opposed to globalization
* contemporary strikes by means of advocates of the loose marketplace to provide 'globalization with a human face'.